Widely reported during the first week of August was the revelation that a group of Russian hackers known as CyberVor had amassed a database of 1.2 billion usernames and passwords, as well as more than 500 million email addresses. The New York Times originally broke the story, based on findings from the firm Hold Security. Unlike the Target retail data breach of late 2013 and the more recent eBay breach, CyberVor’s loot is not the result of one or two large breaches, but rather a large number of breaches of all sizes. Hold Security says that the data came from 420,000 websites, ranging from large household-name dotcoms down to small sites. Most of the sites were breached using SQL injection techniques through malware infecting the computers of unwitting legitimate users.
Breaches of major websites or retailers tend to be highly concentrated, narrowly focused efforts, whereas the database collected by CyberVor appears to be the result of casting a very wide (bot)net, trawling the world wide web for anything the group could catch.
What lessons can the CyberVor revelation teach us (or reinforce) about the Internet of Things?
Lesson #1: No IoT site (either physical or virtual) is too small to be attacked. Many users are tempted to think, “Why would anyone bother to hack my little IoT network?” The answer is, “Because they can.”
Lesson #2: Even data that has little or no value to hackers on its own may have value when aggregated. If you think your data is worthless to others, you’re probably wrong. Big data is comprised of a whole lot of little data.
Lesson #3: Authorized users or devices are not necessarily safe just because they are authorized. Follow the principle of least privilege, in which users or devices only have access to the minimum amount of data and system resources necessary to perform their functions.
Lesson #4: Monitor your networks for atypical or unexpected movements of data. This is challenging in practice, because valid usage occasionally may not follow past patterns. Nevertheless, at a minimum the system should have a way to throw up a red flag if a user or device is attempting to copy large portions of a database.
Lesson #5: Don’t neglect the basics. SQL injection attacks as well as buffer overflows and cross-site scripting are common and easily preventable. Most software code analysis tools can check for vulnerabilities to such attacks early in the development process.
Lesson #6: Conduct independent penetration tests on your devices and networks. If you think that your own engineers already have covered every possible attack vector, you’re probably wrong. You need outside eyeballs incentivized to find flaws without concern about stepping on coworkers’ toes.
And lastly, Lesson #7: At the risk of stating the obvious, encrypt your data. Any database that is accessible either directly or indirectly from the Internet is worth encrypting. Passwords in particular are keys to the kingdom. Encrypt them with salted hash techniques and strong algorithms. There is never a valid reason to store passwords in plain text.
If the websites breached by CyberVor already had learned these lessons, the hack wouldn’t even have been newsworthy.
For more insights into IoT security issues, check out VDC’s research program on Security & the Internet of Things.